The consumer model has changed radically from the origin of its study to the present day. From the product that is bought to the specific space of the purchase, everything has changed. The customer, for example, has gone from being the buyer of the main object of the strategies to being the main focus of marketing.
Among many other variations, these are some of the changes that the customer has undergone and that have transformed his or her role in the sale of products and services.
The 4Cs of marketing
The so-called 4Cs of marketing (Consumer, Communication, Convenience and Cost) are the result of the revision of a previous theory, that of McCarthy's 4Ps: Product, Price, Place and Promotion. This American accountant developed his theory in the 1960s, in the context of the "marketing mix"; that is, the search for a practical application of theoretical marketing concepts .
However, the evolution of the market, consumer patterns and consumers themselves have made this strategy obsolete over the years. The 4P theory was criticised for being too product-oriented and not consumer-oriented, and the 4Cs of the publicist Robert Lauterborn were born from this revision in the 1990s. They are therefore the result of transforming McCarthy's 4Ps into a new theory that is oriented according to the consumer's perspective .
In thisway, the product is replaced by the consumer, price by cost, place by convenience and promotion by communication. As can be seen, the new 4Cs correspond to the same concepts as McCarthy's, changing only the perspective from which they are viewed, the consumer. Putting oneself in the consumer's place helps to understand more clearly what the consumer wants, as well as what the competition offers. Let's learn a little more about each of these four elements .
Omni-channel is a marketing strategy that tries to connect with potential customers through all possible channels simultaneously.
By channel we mean not only the distribution channel, but also the media used for advertising, as well as points of sale and post-purchase communication. In addition, the use of channels is customised to the market niche (or niches) to be reached. The best omni-channel strategy will always be to strike the perfect balance between content and context.
The appearance of the term already highlights the current market situation. A few channels are not enough to communicate with customers, let alone one. But today's diversification of media has led to specificity. Not all channels are optimal for communicating in the same way. Part of the strategy is to choose which of them are most appropriate for our buyer personas. The behaviour of these buyer personas helps to find out which channels are most effective. And, although there are big generational differences, a study by Hubspot has shown that, regardless of the generation to which the prospects belong, they all prefer the website as their first choice for information about a company .
The possibility of having it all has generated a desire in the customer to have it all. And not only that, but to satisfy all needs in the shortest possible time. We are talking about the most absolute immediacy known so far in consumer behaviour and marketing.
It is now geared towards customer convenience, making the customer as comfortable and effortless as possible during the shopping journey, so that they stay on your website or in your shop.
Examples of immediacy as a consumer need are 24-hour deliveries, the functional diversity of social networks that now also include shopping, or investments in communication tools such as chatboxes or newsletters to try to centralise the customer as much as possible in our space.